Balkans Campaign (World War I)
The Balkans Campaign, or Balkan Theatre of World War I was fought between the Central Powers, represented by Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Allies, represented by France, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, and the United Kingdom (and later Romania and Greece, who sided with the Allied Powers) on the other side.
The prime cause of World War I was the hostility between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. Consequently, some of the earliest fighting took place between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. Serbia held out against Austria-Hungary for more than a year before it was conquered in late 1915.
Dalmatia was a strategic region during World War I that both Italy and Serbia intended to seize from Austria-Hungary. Italy entered the war in 1915 upon agreeing to the Treaty of London that guaranteed Italy a substantial portion of Dalmatia.
Piri Reis (1465 - 1554)
Famous Turkish sailor and the first Turkish marine cartographer born in Gelibolu (Gallipoli). Piri Reis was both a great sea commander who was heroic and smart in battle and one of the most important cartographers and sailor writers of his time.
Starting with his days of piracy, he systematically wrote down his observations. Works he produced written by using the material he found on marine cartography and marine geography and the maps he produced have a distinguished place in history of science. The world map he charted was printed by the Turkish Historical Institution in 1935. This map was presented by Piri Reis to Yavuz Sultan Selim in Egypt in 1517.
The Süleymaniye Mosque (Turkish: Süleymaniye Camii, Turkish pronunciation: [sylejˈmaːnije]) is an Ottoman imperial mosque located on the Third Hill of Istanbul, Turkey. It is the second largest mosque in the city, and one of the best-known sights of Istanbul.
The Süleymaniye Mosque, built on the order of Sultan Süleyman (Süleyman the Magnificent), "was fortunate to be able to draw on the talents of the architectural genius of Mimar Sinan" (481 Traditions and Encounters: Brief Global History). The construction work began in 1550 and the mosque was finished in 1557.
This "vast religious complex called the Süleymaniye...blended Islamic and Byzantine architectural elements. It combines tall, slender minarets with large domed buildings supported by half domes in the style of the Byzantine church Hagia Sophia (which the Ottomans converted into the mosque of Aya Sofya)" (481 Traditions and Encounters: Brief Global History).
Women Who Ruled: Mahpeyker Kosem Sultan of Ottoman Turkey
For women who ruled, it seemed as if power and enduring happiness could not often coexist. While they lived, these women proved they could be as competent, decisive, and cruel when necessary, similar to their male counterparts.
In the seventeenth century, Sultan Mehmed III fathered a son, Ahmet I, who became ruler of the Ottoman Empire in 1603, at the age of thirteen. Until then, Ahmet had spent several years in isolation within Topkapi Palace's Golden Cage, an apartment reserved for princes younger than the reigning sovereign. Two years later, a fifteen year-old Greek girl born in 1590 entered his harem, a slave re-named Kosem. Daughter of a priest, Kosem entered the harem and in 1612, bore him their first son, Murad. She later became the mother of the princes Ibrahim andBajezit.
History of the Ottoman Empire during World War I
The Ottoman Empire participated in World War I as one of the Central Powers. The Ottomans entered the war when they carried out a surprise attack on Russia's Black Sea coast on 29 October 1914, following which Russia declared war on it on 1 November 1914. Ottoman forces fought the Allies in the Balkans and the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. A naval blockade imposed by the allies and the conscription of farmers caused severe food shortages in the cities, especially in the winter of 1916-17. The Ottomans' defeat in the war in 1918 was crucial in the eventual dissolution of the empire in 1922.
List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Osmanlı padişahları), made up solely of the members of the Ottoman dynasty(House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned from Hungary in the north to Yemen in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iraq in the east. Administered at first from the city of Bursa, the empire's capital was moved to Edirne in 1363 following its conquest by Murad I, and then to Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) in 1453 following its conquest by Mehmed II.Devamını oku
Ahmed I (Ottoman Turkish: احمد اول Aḥmed-i evvel; Turkish: I. Ahmed; April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617. Ahmed's reign is noteworthy for marking the end of the Ottoman tradition of royal fratricide; henceforth Ottoman rulers would no longer execute their brothers upon accession to the throne. He is also well known for his construction of the Blue Mosque, one of the most famous mosques in Turkey.
Ahmed was the son of Mehmed III and Handan Sultan, a Greek slave. When he ascended the throne, his aunts Ayşe Sultan, Fatma Sultan, Mihrimah Sultan, Fahriye Sultan, Mihriban Sultan, and Rukiye Sultan as well as his powerful grandmother Safiye Sultan were still alive. He had two siblings, Mustafa I and a daughter of Mehmed III which was married to Kara Davud Pasha.
Abdülmecid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجید الثانی, Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâni –Turkish: Halife İkinci Abdülmecit Efendi (29 May 1868 – 23 August 1944)) was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman Dynasty, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1924.
His name has various alternate spellings, including Abdul Mejid Effendi,Aakhir Khalifatul Muslimeen Abd-ul-Madjeed bin Abd-al-Aziz Khan.
On 30 May 1868, he was born at Dolmabahçe Palace or at Beşiktaş Palace, Beşiktaş, in Islam Pole, Osman's Dream, to then SultanAbdülaziz and his wife Hayranidil Kadın Efendi. He was educated privately.
Fuzuli (1494 - 1555)
One of the most famous and greatest poets of Turkish literature. Fuzuli, who had a perfect knowledge of Turkish, Arabic and Persian, the three great Eastern languages of the time, has written his collected poems (Divan) in three different languages. Besides his "kaside", each being a monument, he has given us the best and the most sensitive examples of lyrical Turkish poetry, "Leyla ile Mecnun". This famous love and pain "mesnevi", which is considered to be the most important work of Fuzuli, occupies a special place among the work on the theme of these tragic and legendary lovers by numerous Turkish and Iranian poets. In his work titled "hadikad-üs- Sueda he describes the tragedy of Kerbela which is an extremely sad incident of the Islamic history. This literary piece is one of the best works produced in Turkish. He also has numerous other works of importance.Devamını oku
Shamsaddin Sami (Frashëri), the ethnic Albanian Ottoman writer, lexicographer and encyclopedist. Talat and the Turkish-i is the first novel Taaşşuk Fitnat's (1872), the first Turkish encyclopedia Kamus-ul Alam's (1889-1898) and modern in the sense that the first comprehensive Turkish dictionary Kamus-i Türkî'n's (1901) is the author . Also Kamus-i Fransevî has written Arabic dictionaries called from French and Kamus-i Arabi.
With his brother Fraşerel Abdul Bey has developed the first Albanian alphabet using Latin and Greek letters (1879) and Albanian wrote a grammar book (1886). Brother Naim Fraser Albanians are considered to be the founder of the national poetry. Galatasaray Sports Club has established is the father of the founder of the Ali Sami Yen.
Ottomans - 1600s
Sofia Baffo took control of the Ottoman Empire in 1583 AD, ruling through her husband Murad III after her aunt and mother-in-law Nurbanu died. In 1593, Sofia entered into a war with Austria. After Murad died in 1595, Sofia ruled through her son, Mehmed III, continuing the war with Austria. Sofia continued to negotiate with Queen Elizabeth, who sent her a clockwork organ and a carriage as gifts, to get Ottoman help against the Spanish and Austrians. Henry IV of France also tried to make an alliance with her against Spain and Austria. When the Ottoman army lost some battles in Austria, however, Ottoman opinion turned against Europeans and Christians in general, and Elizabeth died, and so they didn't make an alliance in the end. Mehmed died in 1603, and his mother Sofia continued to rule through her grandson, Ahmed.Devamını oku
Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث, Aḥmed-i sālis) (30/31 December 1673 – 1 July 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87). His mother was Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan, originally named Evmania Voria, who was an ethnic Greek.[excessive citations] He was born at Hajioglupazari, inDobruja. He succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II (1695–1703). Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha and his daughter, Hatice Sultan (wife of the former) directed the government from 1718 to 1730, a period referred to as the Tulip Era.
The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks. The Ottoman Turks began to absorb the other states, and during the reign (1451–81) of Muhammad II they ended all other local Turkish dynasties. The early phase of Ottoman expansion took place under Osman I, Orkhan, Murad I, and Beyazid I at the expense of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia. Bursa fell in 1326 and Adrianople (the modern Edirne) in 1361; each in turn became the capital of the empire. The great Ottoman victories of Kosovo (1389) and Nikopol (1396) placed large parts of the Balkan Peninsula under Ottoman rule and awakened Europe to the Ottoman danger. The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of Timur, who defeated and captured Beyazid in 1402. The Ottomans, however, soon rallied.
The Period of Great Expansion
Suleyman I was born on 27th April 1495, Monday in Trabzon. His father was Sultan Selim I and his mother was Hafsa Sultan. Suleyman I was a tall man with a round face, hazel eyes broad forehead and a thin beard. Suleyman the Magnificent had reigned for forty six years (1520-1566) and this is the most memorable epoch of the empire, when it reached a pitch of grandeur and prosperity which was never afterwards surpassed, and from which it soon began to decline.Devamını oku