Ottoman History

Ottoman History

Ottoman History


Ertuğrul (Ottoman Turkish: ارطغرل‎, Erṭoġrıl; often with the title Gazi) (died c. 1280) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. While his historicity is proven by coins minted by Osman I which identify Ertuğrul as the name of his father, nothing else is known for certain about his life or activities.[1] According to Ottoman mythic tradition,[2] he was the son of Suleiman Shah, leader of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks, who fled from eastern Iran to Anatolia to escape the Mongol Conquests. According to this legend, after the death of his father, Ertuğrul and his followers entered the service of the Seljuks of Rum, for which he was rewarded with dominion over the town of Söğüt on the frontier with the Byzantine Empire.[3] This set off the chain of events that would ultimately lead to the founding of the Ottoman Empire. Like his son, Osman, and their future descendants, Ertuğrul is often referred to as a Ghazi,[4] a heroic champion fighter for the cause of Islam.

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What if Pargali Ibrahim and Sehzade Mustafa were not executed(Ottoman Empire)

Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleyman the Magnificent ruled the Ottoman Empire for 46 years between 1520 - 1566 and doubled his territory. This was a rising period for Istanbul, as it was for the whole Empire. Many valuable buildings were constructed during this period which survived until our days with no or little damage thanks to the great architect Sinan. The city was restored with a better plan including new dams, aqueducts and fountains, theological schools (medrese), caravanserai, Turkish baths, botanical gardens and bridges. The port of Golden Horn, of which the surveillance was made from Galata Tower, became one of the busiest ports. Some of the important monuments and mosques built during this period are: Suleymaniye Mosque and annexes, Sehzadebasi Mosque and establishments, Sultan Selim Mosque and establishments, Cihangir Mosque and Haseki establishments and baths built on behalf of the Hurrem Sultan (the only loved wife of the Sultan).

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Şehzade Mustafa

Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi (Turkish pronunciation: [ʃehzaːˈde mustaˈfa muhliˈsi]; 1515, Manisa – 6 October 1553, Konya) was the eldest son of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his chief consort Mahidevran Sultan. He was the prince-governor of Manisa from 1533 to 1541, of Amasya from 1541 to 1549 and of Konya from 1549 to 1553. Şehzade Mustafa was the heir apparent to the Ottoman throne and a very popular prince among the army prior to his execution, by order of his father, which he later regretted.

Mustafa was born in 1515 in Manisa to Şehzade Suleiman (the future sultan) and Mahidevran.

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List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Osmanlı padişahları), made up solely of the members of the Ottoman dynasty(House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned from Hungary in the north to Yemen in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iraq in the east. Administered at first from the city of Bursa, the empire's capital was moved to Edirne in 1363 following its conquest by Murad I, and then to Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) in 1453 following its conquest by Mehmed II.[1]

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Diriliş: Ertuğrul

Diriliş: Ertuğrul (English: The Revival: Ertuğrul) is a Turkish historical adventure television series created by Mehmet Bozdağ, starring Engin Altan Düzyatan in the title role. It is filmed in Riva, a village in Beykoz, intracity district of Istanbul, and premiered on TRT 1 in Turkey on December 10, 2014. The show is based on the history of the Oghuz Turks and takes place in the 13th century and centers around the life of Ertuğrul, the father of Osman I, the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder and namesake of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. While only a small principality during Ertuğrul's lifetime, would prevail as a world empire under his son's dynasty for the next six centuries after his death.


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Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleiman the Magnificent grants Hungarian king John II Sigismund Zapolya permission to resume his throne after Hungary's defeat by the Ottoman Empire. Getty Images

Suleiman's Early Life:
Suleiman was born to Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire and Aishe Hafsa Sultan of the Crimean Khanate. He was the sultan's only surviving son.
As a child, he studied at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, where he learned theology, literature, science, history, and warfare. He became fluent in six languages: Ottoman Turkish, Arabic, Serbian, Chagatai Turkish (similar to Uighur), Farsi, and Urdu. Suleiman's tutors noted both his studious nature and his bravery from an early age.

As a youth, Suleiman was fascinated by Alexander the Great. His later program of military expansion may have been inspired in part by Alexander's conquests. As sultan, Suleiman would lead 13 major military expeditions, and he spent more than 10 years of his 46-year reign out on campaign.

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Kösem Sultan Bio

Kösem was born Anastasia and was of Greek ancestry. While still young, she was sent to Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. There she was sold, at the age of 15, to the harem of Sultan Ahmed I. The etymology of harem is Arabic, meaning ‘forbidden because sacred/important”. Harems were women’s quarters, intended to keep them safe. These harems contained wives, daughters, concubines, distant female relatives, and slaves. It was here that Anastasia’s name was changed to Mâhpeyker. She also converted to Islam from Orthodox Christian, the major religion of the Empire. Later Sultan Ahmed changed her name again, this time to Kösem.

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Why did Ataturk change the language and the alphabet of modern day Turkey?

Atatürk changed the script firstly because the Arabic script did not work well for the Turkish language, mainly because of the Turkish vowel system. Classical Arabic had three long and three short vowels, Turkish has eight. Specific vowels were all impossible to show in the Arabic alphabet without a special notation that might have been developed, and it never even happened. This caused Turks not using their language correctly. Arabic script is already more difficult to learn ( imagine what happens when it doesn't even suit well for a language.

Prof. Dr. Mina Urgan who has studied linguistics and could fluently speak Turkish, English, and French plus a little from some other languages, has a part about that in her memoir. I'll add a picture of the original text for those who can speak Turkish. She says,

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Why was Turkey neutral in World War II?

Turkey did not want the territories it lost in WW1. There were not many Turks left in the territories Turkey lost due to numerous population exchanges. Their priority was to hang on to those lands that were won after a bloody struggle in the independence war. Ataturk, our founding father has a quote that best underlines Turkey’s priorities after the foundation of the republic - “peace at home, peace in the World”.

Territorial gains that might have occured at the end of the war would not justify risking invasion and devastation and throwing lives away for a fight that did not threaten our existance. (Unlike the British or the Soviets or the Germans after the tide had turned.)

3. Ataturk was not close to axis views:

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Murad IV

Murad IV (Ottoman Turkish: مراد رابع‎, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; July 26/27, 1612 – February 8, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IV was born in Istanbul, the son of Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603–17) and the ethnic Greek Kösem Sultan.[2] Brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, he succeeded his uncle Mustafa I (r. 1617–18, 1622–23). He was only 11 when he took the throne. His reign is most notable for the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39), of which the outcome would permanently part the Caucasus between the two Imperial powers for around two centuries, while it also roughly laid the foundation for the current Turkey - Iran - Iraq borders.

In the early years of Murad's reign, he was under the control of his relatives. His absolute rule started around 1632, when he took the authority and repressed all the tyrants, and he re-etablished the supremacy of Sultan.

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Magnificent Century: Kösem

Magnificent Century: Kösem ( Turkish Pronunciation: [muhteʃɛm jyzjɯl I Cosener] , İngilizce: The Magnificent Century: Kösem ) is a Turkish television sequel to the 2011 Turkish television period drama Magnificent Century . Written by Yilmaz Sahin, Nüket Cutler and love Yilmaz, it recounts the life of Kosem Sultan , a slave girl who bec but one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history after she was captured and sent to the harem of the Sultan Ahmed II . [1]
The first episodes of the series were filmed in Chios, Greece.[2] An excerpt of the show was screened in Cannes, France at the annual international television festival MIPCOM about a month before its official premiere on Star TV on November 12, 2015.[3][4]

Season 1

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Grand Vizier Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha

Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha was the boyhood friend of Suleiman. Ibrahim was originally a Christian from Parga (in Epirus),[68][69] and when he was young was educated at the Palace School under the devshirme system. Suleiman made him the royal falconer, then promoted him to first officer of the Royal Bedchamber.[70] Ibrahim Pasha rose to Grand Vizier in 1523 and commander-in-chief of all the armies. Suleiman also conferred upon Ibrahim Pasha the honor of beylerbey of Rumelia (first-ranking military governor-general), granting Ibrahim authority over all Turkish territories in Europe, as well as command of troops residing within them in times of war. According to a 17th-century chronicler, Ibrahim had asked Suleiman not to promote him to such high positions, fearing for his safety; to which Suleiman replied that under his reign, no matter what the circumstance, Ibrahim would never be put to death.[71]

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Mahmud II

Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلىMahmud-u Âdlî) (Turkish: II. Mahmud) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. He was born in the Topkapı Palace, Constantinople,[1] the posthumous son of Sultan Abdul Hamid I.
His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated into the Decree of Tanzimat("Reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdülmecid I andAbdülaziz I. Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey",[2] Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire.


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Murat III.

Sultan Murad III was born in Manisa, on 4th of July 1546. He was the son of Sultan Selim II and Afife Nur Banu Sultana who was Venetian originated. He was a gracious ruler, he had spoken Arabic and Persian fluently. After, his father ascended he was appointed as the governor of Manisa. He took lessons from the famous scholars of Manisa. He was one of the most intelligent sultans of the empire. After, his father's death he went to Istanbul and ascended the throne on 22nd December 1574.
Like his father, he left the administration to Sokollu Mehmed Pasha. Sultan Murad III led a life of pleasures, he never left Istanbul during his reign and he was very much influenced by the women in the palace. The woman dynasty emerged in his period continued in the following years. The mothers and wives of the sultans began to dominate the empire. He ascended the throne at the age of 29 and reigned for nearly 21 years. He died because of apoplexy on 15th January 1595.

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The Franco-Ottoman alliance, also Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France Francis I and the Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent. The alliance has been called "the first non-ideological diplomatic alliance of its kind between a Christian and non-Christian empire".[1] It caused a scandal in the Christian world,[2] and was designated as "the impious alliance", or "the sacrilegious union of the Lily and the Crescent"; nevertheless, it endured since it served the interests of both parties.[3] The strategic and sometimes tactical alliance was one of the most important foreign alliances of France and lasted for more than two and a half centuries,[4] until the Napoleonic Campaign in Egypt, an Ottoman territory, in 1798–1801. The Franco-Ottoman alliance was also an important chapter of Franco-Asian relations.


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