Ottoman History

Ottoman History

Ottoman History

The Horizon of Katip Celebi’s Thought

The article of Professor Dr. Bekir Karliga on the horizon of Katip Çelebi's thought is a tremendous analysis of the reformist efforts deployed by the renowned 17th-century Ottoman scholar Katip Çelebi Mustafa bin Abdallah, known as Haji Khalifa. Striving to show the acute consciousness Katip Çelebi had of the intellectual stagnation that was occuring in the Islamic world, in comparison with the earlier centuries of Islamic civilisation and with the then ongoing growth of science in Europe, the author depicts a faithful picture of Katip Çelebi's warning to his contemporaries. Four centuries later the alert that Katip Celebi sounded still holds good.

1. The historical context

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About Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi, Şehzade

Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi (Turkish pronunciation: [ʃehzaːˈde mustaˈfa muhliˈsi]) (1515, Manisa – October 6, 1553, Konya), was the prince of Manisa from 1533 to 1541 and the prince of Amasya from 1541 to 1553. He was Suleiman the Magnificent's first-born son by Mahidevran Sultan. Şehzade Mustafa was the heir apparent to the Ottoman throne and a very popular prince among the people of Anatolia. He had one sister, Raziye Sultan, from her mother's side.
• 1 Life
• 2 Execution
• 3 After the execution
• 4 Marriages and issue
• 5 Depictions in literature and popular culture
• 6 References

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Selim II

Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i sānī, Turkish:II.Selim; 28 May 1524 – 12 December/15 December 1574), also known as "Selim the Sot(Mest)" in west and as "Sarı Selim" (Selim the Blond) in east, was theSultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574. He was a son of Suleiman the Magnificent and Haseki Hürrem Sultan. Selim had been an unlikely candidate for the throne until his brother Mehmed died of smallpox, his half-brother Mustafa was strangled to death by the order of his father, and his brother Bayezid was killed in a coordinated effort between him and his father.


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Western Front (World War I)

The Western Front was the main theatre of war during World War I. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the race to the sea, both sides dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France. This line remained essentially unchanged for most of the war.

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Sami Frashëri

Sami Frashëri (Turkish: Şemseddin Sami, June 1, 1850 – June 18, 1904) was an Albanian writer, philosopher, playwright and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare, the National Renaissance movement of Albania, together with his two brothers Abdyl andNaim. He accepted and supported the Turkish nationalism and laicism[1] and had close relationships with Turkish nationalist intellectuals such as Veled Chelebi (İzbudak) and Nedjib 'Asim (Yazıksız).[2]

Frashëri was one of the sons of an impoverished Bey from Frashër (Fraşer during the Ottoman rule) in the District of Përmet. He gained a place in Ottoman literature as a talented author under the name of Şemseddin Sami Efendi and contributed to the Ottoman Turkish language reforms.

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Selim I

Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: I. Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim (Turkish: Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.[1] His reign is notable for the enormous expansion of the Empire, particularly hisconquest between 1516 and 1517 of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, which included all of the Levant, Hejaz, Tihamah, and Egypt itself.

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Murad IV

Murad IV (Ottoman Turkish: مراد رابع‎, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; July 26/27, 1612 – February 8, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empirefrom 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IV was born in Istanbul, the son of Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603–17) and the ethnic Greek Kösem Sultan.[1] Brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, he succeeded his uncle Mustafa I (r. 1617–18, 1622–23). He was only 11 when he took the throne. His reign is most notable for the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39), of which the outcome would permanently part the Caucasus between the two Imperial powers for around two centuries, while it also roughly laid the foundation for the current Turkey - Iran - Iraq borders.


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Murad IV of Turkey (1612-1640) was both strong-willed and physically strong. His dominant mother had tried to make him abhor women, and all his life they induced both lust and hate in Murad. His cruelty became legendary, and, in his later years, he killed people, especially females, just because off ill humour or a whim.

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Ibn-i Sina (980 - 1037)

The great doctor, scholar and philosopher of the eastern world during the middle Ages. For years, his works were used as text books at western universities. He was a true pathfinder not only in medicine but also in mathematics and physics. The philosophical encyclopedia called "Sifa" (Healing), "Kanun" which is a medical encyclopedia, and books titled "Necat" and "Isarat" and the twenty volume "Kitab-ül- insaf" which comments on total works of Aristotle are among his major works.

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Bayezid II

Bayezid II or Sultân Bayezid-î Velî (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i sānī, Turkish:II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of theOttoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. During his reign, Bayezid II consolidated the Ottoman Empire and thwarted a Safavid rebellion soon before abdicating his throne to his son, Selim I. He is most notable for evacuating Jews from Spain after the proclamation of the Alhambra Decree and resettling them throughout the Ottoman Empire.

Early life
Bayezid II was the son of Mehmed II (1432–81) and Emine Gülbahar Hatun.
Bayezid II married Gülbahar Hatun, who was the mother of his eldest sonŞehzade Ahmet, as well as Bayezid II's heir and successor, Selim I and nephew of Sitti Mükrime Hatun.

Fight for the throne

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The making of a legend - Redhouse: Part One

• Following the change to the Latin alphabet, the Redhouse dictionaries had to be reproduced in the new alphabet. The 1950 Revised Redhouse Dictionary, English-Turkish was the first to be printed and this was followed by the New Redhouse Turkish-English
• • Following the change to the Latin alphabet, the Redhouse dictionaries had to be reproduced in the new alphabet. The 1950 Revised Redhouse Dictionary, English-Turkish was the first to be printed and this was followed by the New Redhouse Turkish-English Dictionary in 1968 -- with 1,325 pages and definitions for 105,000 words and expressions
• • In the 1960s the publishing program began to diversify into such areas as family life, nature and ecology, travel and Turkish culture... in line with its long-held goals of providing education and understandingNiki Gamm
• Istanbul - Turkish Daily News

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Evliya Çelebi

E.Ç. was born on 10 Muharrem 1020/25 March 1611 in Unqapanı (Istanbul) as the son of the imperial goldsmith (quyumcubaşı) Derviş Mehmed Zılli Aga (d. 1058/ 1648). He traces his paternal genealogy through Ahmed Yesevi (d. 562/1166) all the way back to the imams of early Islamic history, a pedigree reflecting the folk stories of gazis and dervishes preserved in Ottoman popular memory. At several points in his work E.Ç. claims that his ancestor Ece Yaqub (13 c.?) originated from the Transoxanian region Mahan and came to Anatolia with Ertugrul Gazi (d. 687/1288), trying to unite in his person the two main legitimating strands of the Ottoman dynasty, namely the Turkish and Islamic heritage. Even though his claim that his father was a warrior of faith under Süleyman I (926-74/1520-66) is anachronistic, his statement that he contributed as a court jeweler to pious works of art during the reign of Ahmed I (1012-26/1603-17) is more reliable.

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Orhan of the Ottoman Empire

Orhan Gazi (Ottoman Turkish: اورخان غازی، اورخان بن عثمان بن ارطغرل‎; Turkish:Orhan Gazi; 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey of the nascentOttoman Sultanate (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1323/4 to 1362. He was born in Söğüt, as the son of Osman Gazi andMalhun Hatun. His grandfather was Ertuğrul, and his grandmother wasHalime Hatun.

In the early stages of his reign, Orhan focused his energies on conquering most of northwestern Anatolia. The majority of these areas were underByzantine rule and he won his first battle, at Pelekanon, against theByzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. Orhan also occupied the lands of the Karasids of Balıkesir and the Ahis of Ankara.

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Ottoman–Persian Wars

Below is the list of wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand and Qajar dynasties of Persia through the 16th–19th centuries. The Ottomans consolidated their control of what is today Turkey in the 15th century, and gradually came into conflict with the emerging neighboring Persian state, led by Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty. The two states were arch rivals, and were also divided by religious grounds, the Ottomans being staunchly Sunni and the Safavids being Shia. A series of military conflicts ensued for centuries during which the two empires competed militarily for control over eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia (Iraq).

Name of the war Ottoman sultan Persian shah Treaty at the end of the war Victor
Battle of Chaldiran(1514)[1]
Selim I
Ismail I
None The Ottoman Empire
War of 1532–1555[2]
Suleiman I
Tahmasp I
Treaty of Amasya (1555)
The Ottoman Empire[3]

War of 1578–1590[4]
Murad III
Mohammad Khodabanda, Abbas I

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Suleyman The Magnificent

Suleyman I (ruled from 1520-1566) is regarded as the greatest Ottoman ruler. Also known as Suleyman the Magnificent, he was the tenth Ottoman sultan and fourth one to rule from Istanbul. He presided over a large empire and ruled longer and more heroically than any other Ottoman sultan. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak under his rule both in terms of political and economic power and development of Turkish art and architecture. [Source: "The World of Suleyman the Magnificent" by Merle Severy, National Geographic, November 1987 (♂)]

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