Ottoman History

Ottoman History

Ottoman History

Ottoman Empire 4

The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also known as the Turkish Empire,[9] Ottoman Turkey,[10][11] was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia by the Turkish[12] tribal leader Osman,[13] according to the Ottoman tradition said to have been descended from the Kayı tribe.[dn 4] After conquests in the Balkans by Murad I between 1362 and 1389, the Ottoman sultanate was transformed into a transcontinental empire and claimant to the caliphate. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.[15]

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Bayezid I

Bayezid I (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد اول‎; Turkish: 1. Beyazıt; nicknamedYıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: ییلدیرم), "The Thunderbolt[1]"; 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402. He was the son ofMurad I[2][3] and Gülçiçek Hatun. He built one of the largest armies in the known world at the time and unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople. He was defeated and captured by Timur at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and died in captivity in March 1403.

The first major role of Bayezid was as governor of Kütahya, a city that was conquered from the Germiyanids. He was an impetuous soldier, earning the nickname of Lightning in a battle against the Karamanids.

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Murad IV

Murad IV (Ottoman Turkish: مراد رابع‎, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; July 26/27, 1612 – February 8, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IV was born in Istanbul, the son of SultanAhmed I (r. 1603–17) and the ethnic Greek Kösem Sultan.[1] Brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, he succeeded his uncle Mustafa I(r. 1617–18, 1622–23). He was only 11 when he took the throne. His reign is most notable for the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39), of which theoutcome would permanently part the Caucasus between the two Imperial powers for around two centuries, while it also roughly laid the foundation for the current Turkey - Iran - Iraq borders.

In the early years of Murad's reign, he was under the control of his relatives. His absolute rule started around 1632, when he took the authority and repressed all the tyrants, and he re-etablished the supremacy of Sultan.

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Murad I

Murad I, (born 1326?—died June 20/28 or Aug. 28, 1389, Kosovo) Ottoman sultan who ruled from 1360 to 1389. Murad’s reign witnessed rapid Ottoman expansion in Anatolia and the Balkans and the emergence of new forms of government and administration to consolidate Ottoman rule in these areas.
Murad ascended the throne in succession to his father, Orhan. Shortly after Murad’s accession, his forces penetrated western Thrace and took Adrianopleand Philippopolis and forced the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus to become a vassal. Adrianople was renamed Edirne, and it became Murad’s capital. In 1366 a crusade commanded by Amadeus VI of Savoy ... (100 of 413 words)

About Murad I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

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Suleiman the Magnificent

Born: November 6, 1494 at Trabzon, on the Turkish coast of the Black Sea.
Reign: Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 1520 to 1566, the "Golden Age" of the Empire.
Died: September 7, 1566, at Szigetvar, Hungary.
Succeeded by: Selim II, also known as "Selim the Drunkard."

Suleiman's Early Life:
Suleiman was born to Sultan Selim I of theOttoman Empire and Aishe Hafsa Sultan of the Crimean Khanate. He was the sultan's only surviving son. As a child, he studied at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, where he learned theology, literature, science, history, and warfare. He became fluent in six languages: Ottoman Turkish, Arabic, Serbian, Chagatai Turkish (similar to Uighur), Farsi, and Urdu. Suleiman's tutors noted both his studious nature and his bravery from an early age.

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State organisation of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire developed over the centuries a complex organization of government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler of a centralized government that had an effective control of its provinces, officials and inhabitants. Wealth and rank could be inherited but were just as often earned. Positions were perceived as titles such as viziers and aghas. Military service was a key to advancement in the hierarchy.

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Mehmed I

Mehmed I (Ottoman Turkish: چلبی محمد‎, Mehmed I or Mehmed Çelebi) (1381, Bursa – May 26, 1421, Edirne, Ottoman Sultanate) was the Ottoman Sultan (Rûm) from 1413 to 1421. He was one of the sons ofBayezid I and Devlet Hatun.[1] Mehmed's reign was marked by theOttoman Interregnum, a civil war that divided the Sultanate. He managed to reunite the Sultanate before his death in 1421.

Early life
Born in Bursa in 1390 to sultan Bayezid I and one of his wives, Devlet Hatun, Mehmed was the third oldest son of Bayezid. Along with his brothers from various mothers, including Süleyman Çelebi, İsa Çelebi,Mustafa Çelebi, and Musa Çelebi, Mehmed had the title Çelebi, meaning "gentleman."

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Magnifikent Century Kösem

Period Drama
Season 1 : 84 X 1 Commercial Hour
Season 2: Ongoing Production
Weekly, Prime Time
In 1603, Ahmed Khan, the youngest sultan in Ottoman history succeeds to the throne. The inexperienced young Sultan is faced with heavy responsibilities. The Jelali uprisings in the East and the never-ending war with the Austrian Empire in the West have been carrying the empire to a stalemate. Despite his warm heart, sharp wit and great dreams, Ahmed is quite naive and this presents a golden opportunity for his enemies.

Faced with a new challenge every day and the constant threat of losing his life and his throne, the only light of Ahmed’s life of a bed of nails, is Anastasia. He has been in love with Anastasia ever since the day he saw her portrait.

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Art of the Ottomans (before 1600)

At the time of its foundation in the early fourteenth century, the Osmanli or Ottoman state was one among many small principalities that emerged as a result of the disintegration of the Seljuq sultanate in Anatolia and subsequent instability caused by Mongol rule. This embryonic Ottoman state, located on the frontiers of the Islamic world, gradually absorbed former Byzantine territories in Anatolia and the Balkans. In 1453, this expansion culminated in the Ottoman capture of Constantinople, the great capital of Eastern Christendom. With the conquest of the Mamluk empire in 1517, the Ottomans ruled over the most powerful state in the Islamic world. By the middle of the sixteenth century, continued military success in an area extending from Central Europe to the Indian Ocean gave the Ottomans the status of a world power.
With the conquest of the Mamluk empire in 1517, the Ottomans ruled over the most powerful state in the Islamic world.

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Ahmet I

Sultan Ahmed I was born on 18th April 1590 in Manisa. His father was Sultan Mehmet III, his mother was Handan Sultana. He was very well educated, he had spoken Arabic and Persian fluently. He was a very brilliant rider, and a fencer. He was a successful soldier and he was very fond of archery and hunting. He had dressed up so modest. He came to throne after his father's death on 21st December 1603. Sultan Ahmed I was the first sovereign who organised the administrative regulations since Suleyman the Magnificent. He was a political genius, although he ascended throne very young he administrated the empire very successfully. In Sultan Ahmed's life the number 14 was important. He came to throne in the age of 14, he reigned for 14 years and he was the 14th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He had died at the age of 28 because of typhus (22nd November 1617).
His Wifes : Hatice Mahfiruz Sultana, Kosem Sultana (Mahpeyker Sultan), Fatma Haseki

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Mehmed IV

Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish:IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmed, Mehmed the Hunter; January 2, 1642 – January 6, 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. He came to the throne at the age of seven after his father was overthrown in a coup. Mehmed went on to become the second longest reigning sultan in Ottoman history.[1]

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“Thousands great saints”: Evliya Çelebi in Ottoman Palestine

Evliya’s description of his journey in 17th century Ottoman Palestine is a good example of the importance of travelogue, especially as it gives another viewpoint, that of a Muslim scholar. Through his eyes, it is possible to see the country, hear local traditions and get a better understanding of realities in that time and place. This article should be considered as an attempt to initiate either a greater research project on Evliya’s Seyahatname concerning Palestine or a collection and publication of other Muslim travelers’ narratives from the Ottoman period, which are scarce and not always accessible.

- Introduction
- Early Ottoman Palestine
- Evliya Çelebi and his Travelogue
- Rulers and Residents of Palestine
- Description of the Country
- Culture and Religious Life
- Appendix


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Osman II: Martyr or tyrant?

There is history, and there is legend. And some events are made into legends though they are parts of history. Since the cast of figures and events in Turkish history is utterly vast and our imagination boundless, we have an abundance of modern legends even though these are times that are (supposed to be) disciplined by all sorts of information, documents and records.

Especially classical history.

On the one hand, there is a sea of archives dating from the Ottomans, who were rigorous in recording every single object belonging to the state and an objective historiography built by virtue of these archives.

On the other, colossal legends, black or white...

When approached from this particular perspective, Ottoman history appears to be heaven on earth for novelists and cinematographers, as it is for historians and sociologists.

The Ottoman dream versus the Ottoman dread

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Geoffrey Woodward assesses how great an impact the Turks had on sixteenth-century Europe.

‘Now shalt thou feel the force of Turkish arms
Which lately made all Europe quake for fear.’

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The Ottoman Empire’s birth

The Ottoman Empire’s birth is properly dated in 1453, the year the Ottomans took Constantinople (the conquest). Prior to this, the Ottomans were a principality surviving in the fluctuating border regions of more powerful Islamic states and the Byzantines. The term “Ottoman” does not describe an ethnic or racial group. Instead it most properly applies to the final version of the evolving governing class of the Oguz Turks, a nomadic people whose origins are in Central Asia. As this branch of the Turkish family fled from Mongol pressure in Central Asia to the Caucuses and Asia Minor, it adopted Islam and learned statecraft from the predecessor Islamic groups and Byzantium, the leading bureaucratic state of the West.

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