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Ottoman History
Ottoman History

Ibn-i Sina (980 - 1037)

The great doctor, scholar and philosopher of the eastern world during the middle Ages. For years, his works were used as text books at western universities. He was a true pathfinder not only in medicine but also in mathematics and physics. The philosophical encyclopedia called "Sifa" (Healing), "Kanun" which is a medical encyclopedia, and books titled "Necat" and "Isarat" and the twenty volume "Kitab-ül- insaf" which comments on total works of Aristotle are among his major works.

Piri Reis (1465 - 1554)

Famous Turkish sailor and the first Turkish marine cartographer born in Gelibolu (Gallipoli). Piri Reis was both a great sea commander who was heroic and smart in battle and one of the most important cartographers and sailor writers of his time.
Starting with his days of piracy, he systematically wrote down his observations. Works he produced written by using the material he found on marine cartography and marine geography and the maps he produced have a distinguished place in history of science. The world map he charted was printed by the Turkish Historical Institution in 1935. This map was presented by Piri Reis to Yavuz Sultan Selim in Egypt in 1517.

Sultan Cem

Sultan Cem or Cem Sultan (December 22, 1459 – February 25, 1495) (pronounced [ˈd͡ʒem sulˈtɑːn]; Ottoman Turkish: جم‎), also referred to as Jem Sultan, or Jem Zizim by the French, was a pretender to the Ottoman throne in the 15th century.
Cem was the third son of Sultan Mehmed II and younger half-brother of SultanBayezid II, and thus a half-uncle of Sultan Selim I of Ottoman Empire.
After being defeated by Bayezid, Cem went on exile in Egypt and Europe, under the protection of the Mamluks, the Knights Hospitaller of St. John on the island of Rhodes, and ultimately the Pope.

Early life
Cem was born on 22 December 1459 in Edirne.[1] His mother, Çiçek Hatun(Çiçek Khātūn), was probably of Serbian origin. In accordance with the custom for an Ottoman prince (şehzade, şehzāde), Cem was appointed to a provincial governorship of Kastamonu in 1469. In December 1474, Cem replaced his deceased brother Mustafa as governor of Karaman in Konya.[1]
Succession dispute


Fużūlī (Azerbaijani: Füzuli فضولی, c. 1494 – 1556) was the pen name of theAzerbaijani[1][2][3] of the Bayat tribes of Oghuz Turks[4][5][6] poet, writer and thinker Muhammad bin Suleyman (Azerbaijani: Məhəmməd Ben Süleyman محمد بن سليمان). Often considered one of the greatest contributors to theDîvân tradition of Azerbaijani literature,[7] Fuzûlî in fact wrote his collected poems (dîvân) in three different languages: in his native Azerbaijani[8] and also in Persian and Arabic. Although his Turkic works are written in the Azerbaijani dialect of Turkish, he was well-versed in both the Ottoman and the ChagataiTurkic literary traditions as well. He was also well versed in mathematics andastronomy.[9]


The Horizon of Katip Celebi’s Thought

The article of Professor Dr. Bekir Karliga on the horizon of Katip Çelebi's thought is a tremendous analysis of the reformist efforts deployed by the renowned 17th-century Ottoman scholar Katip Çelebi Mustafa bin Abdallah, known as Haji Khalifa. Striving to show the acute consciousness Katip Çelebi had of the intellectual stagnation that was occuring in the Islamic world, in comparison with the earlier centuries of Islamic civilisation and with the then ongoing growth of science in Europe, the author depicts a faithful picture of Katip Çelebi's warning to his contemporaries. Four centuries later the alert that Katip Celebi sounded still holds good.

1. The historical context

Katib Çelebi

Autobiographical sections in his Sullam al-Wusul, in one Cihannüma autograph, and Mizanü’l-Haqq, constitute the primary source of information for entries in biographical dictionaries (Uşaqizade, Şeyhi) and modern reference works on K.Ç., arguably the most important Ottoman intellectual figure of the 11th/17th century.

Nasuh Al-Matrakî, A Noteworthy Ottoman Artist-Mathematician of the Sixteenth Century

Matrakci Nasuh was a famous Ottoman polymath, writer and knight who produced important books in several fields. He made contributions in the fields of mathematics, geography, history and calligraphy. He also invented a military lawn game called "Matrak", a kind of animation of battle.

Matrakçı Nasuh

Nasuh bin Karagöz bin Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnavî, or Nasuh el-Matrakči ibn Karađoz ibn Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnevi, commonly known asMatrakçı Nasuh (Turkish pronunciation: [matrakˈtʃɯ naˈsuh]; Serbian:Matrakčija Nasuh Visočak) for his competence in the game of Matrak, invented by himself, (also known as Nasuh el-Silâhî, Nasuh the Swordsman, because of his talent with weapons; 1480 – c. 1564) was a 16th-centuryBosniak[1][2][3] statesman of the Ottoman Empire, polymath, mathematician, teacher, historian, geographer, cartographer, swordmaster, navigator, inventor, painter, farmer, and miniaturist. He was brought to Istanbul after being recruited by the Ottoman scouts in Rumelia, educated, served several Ottoman sultans, and became a teacher at Enderun School.[4]


“Thousands great saints”: Evliya Çelebi in Ottoman Palestine

Evliya’s description of his journey in 17th century Ottoman Palestine is a good example of the importance of travelogue, especially as it gives another viewpoint, that of a Muslim scholar. Through his eyes, it is possible to see the country, hear local traditions and get a better understanding of realities in that time and place. This article should be considered as an attempt to initiate either a greater research project on Evliya’s Seyahatname concerning Palestine or a collection and publication of other Muslim travelers’ narratives from the Ottoman period, which are scarce and not always accessible.

- Introduction
- Early Ottoman Palestine
- Evliya Çelebi and his Travelogue
- Rulers and Residents of Palestine
- Description of the Country
- Culture and Religious Life
- Appendix


Evliya Çelebi

Mehmed Zilli (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi (Ottoman Turkish: اوليا چلبى‎), was an ethnically Abkhazian Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called theSeyahatname ("Book of Travel").[1]
Evliya Çelebi was born in Constantinople in the year 1611 to a wealthy family fromKütahya. His father was Derviş Mehmed Zilli, an Ottoman court jeweller, and mother anAbkhazian relation of the Ottoman grand vizier Melek Ahmed Pasha.[2] In his book, Evliya Çelebi traces his paternal genealogy back to Khoja Akhmet Yassawi.[3] Evliya Çelebi received a court education from the Imperial ulama.[4] He may have joined theGulshani Sufi order as he shows an intimate knowledge of their khanqah in Cairo, and agraffito in which he referred to himself as Evliya-yı Gülşenî ("Evliya of the Gülşenî").

Evliya Çelebi

E.Ç. was born on 10 Muharrem 1020/25 March 1611 in Unqapanı (Istanbul) as the son of the imperial goldsmith (quyumcubaşı) Derviş Mehmed Zılli Aga (d. 1058/ 1648). He traces his paternal genealogy through Ahmed Yesevi (d. 562/1166) all the way back to the imams of early Islamic history, a pedigree reflecting the folk stories of gazis and dervishes preserved in Ottoman popular memory. At several points in his work E.Ç. claims that his ancestor Ece Yaqub (13 c.?) originated from the Transoxanian region Mahan and came to Anatolia with Ertugrul Gazi (d. 687/1288), trying to unite in his person the two main legitimating strands of the Ottoman dynasty, namely the Turkish and Islamic heritage. Even though his claim that his father was a warrior of faith under Süleyman I (926-74/1520-66) is anachronistic, his statement that he contributed as a court jeweler to pious works of art during the reign of Ahmed I (1012-26/1603-17) is more reliable.

Gentile Bellini

Gentile Bellini (c. 1429 – 23 February 1507) was an Italian painter of the school of Venice. He came from Venice's leading family of painters, and at least in the early part of his career was more highly regarded than his younger brother Giovanni Bellini, the reverse of the case today. From 1474 he was the official portrait artist for the Doges of Venice, and as well as his portraits he painted a number of very large subjects with multitudes of figures, especially for the Scuole Grandi of Venice, wealthy confraternities that were very important in Venetian patrician social life.[1]
In 1479 he was sent to Constantinople by the Venetian government when theOttoman Sultan Mehmed II requested an artist; he returned the next year. Thereafter a number of his subjects were set in the East, and he is one of the founders of theOrientalist tradition in Western painting. His portrait of the Sultan was also copied in paintings and prints and became known all over Europe.[1]


Ali Kuşçu

Ala al-Dīn Ali ibn Muhammed (1403 – 16 December 1474), known as Ali Qushji (Ottoman Turkish/Persian language: علی قوشچی, kuşçu - falconer in Turkish;[1] Latin: Ali Kushgii) was an astronomer, mathematician and physicistoriginally from Samarkand, who settled in the Ottoman Empire some time before 1472.[2] As a disciple of Ulugh Beg, he is best known for the development of astronomical physics independent from natural philosophy, and for providing empirical evidence for the Earth's rotation in his treatise,Concerning the Supposed Dependence of Astronomy upon Philosophy. In addition to his contributions to Ulugh Beg's famous work Zij-i-Sultani and to the founding of Sahn-ı Seman Medrese, one of the first centers for the study of various traditional Islamic sciences in the Ottoman caliphate, Ali Kuşçu was also the author of several scientific works and textbooks on astronomy.[3]

Early life and works

Abdülmecid II

Abdülmecid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجید الثانی‎, Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâni –Turkish: Halife İkinci Abdülmecit Efendi (29 May 1868 – 23 August 1944)) was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman Dynasty, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1924.
His name has various alternate spellings, including Abdul Mejid Effendi,Aakhir Khalifatul Muslimeen Abd-ul-Madjeed bin Abd-al-Aziz Khan.

On 30 May 1868,[1][2] he was born at Dolmabahçe Palace or at Beşiktaş Palace, Beşiktaş, in Islam Pole, Osman's Dream,[3] to then SultanAbdülaziz and his wife Hayranidil Kadın Efendi. He was educated privately.

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