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Ottoman History
Ottoman History

Turkish-Arab relations from past to today

The relations between Turks and Arabs go back centuries. Muslim Arabs began to conquer Turkic regions starting in 705 and Turks fought on the side of Arabs against the Chinese in the Battle of Talas in 751. This alliance developed a connection between Turks and Arabs. Turkic princes in Turkistan adopted Islam, and later, the people adopted Islam en masse.

Abbasids formed military units comprised of Turks and established cities like Samarra, where these units settled. Due to their advanced war skills, Turks moved to high positions in the army. They were also assigned to state positions. Indeed, this practice helped them warm up to Islam and all Turks adopted Islam in the 10th century.

Morocco–Turkey relations

Turkey–Morocco relations covers relations between Morocco and Turkey, and spanned a period of several centuries, from the early 16th century to the 19th century when Northern Africa was taken over by France, until modern times.
The history between the Ottoman Empire and Morocco constitutes a strong basis for the current bilateral relations without any historical prejudices. From the Moroccan perspective, Turkey is a modern and developed country which also keeps its national identity.

Diplomatic relations between Turkey and Morocco were established on 17 April 1956 by a joint declaration of the Governments of two countries; following the proclamation of independence of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Ottoman-Morocco relations
From the early 16th century, the Ottomans had been constantly reinforcing their presence in northern Africa, starting as corsairs, from around 1500 to 1519.[1]
Ottoman occupation of Tlemcen (1517)

Turkey–United States relations

Turkey–United States relations [1] in the post-World War II period evolved from the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943 and Turkey's entrance into World War II on the side of the Allies in February 1945, as a result of which Turkey became a charter member of the United Nations.[1] Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in much US military and economic support.[2] This support manifested in the establishment of a clandestine stay-behind army, denoted the "Counter-Guerrilla", under Operation Gladio. After participating with United Nations forces in the Korean War, Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organizationin 1952.[3]

Iran and Turkey

• Relations between Iran and Turkey have long been defined by mutual suspicion and competition, despite a 312-mile border that has remained unchanged since 1639.
• Close allies during the monarchy, relations soured after the 1979 revolution. Ankara felt threatened by Tehran’s ambitions to change the regional order. Iran in turn perceived Turkey as a close ally of the West and therefore potentially hostile.
• Adding to tensions, Tehran and Ankara have diametrically opposed worldviews: Turkey is a constitutionally secular state where the military is the self-appointed guardian of secularism. Iran is a theocracy in which Islamic law rules and clerics play decisive roles, including control over the military.
• Yet the two governments have cooperated when necessary, especially on energy and Kurdish issues. Relations improved after the 2002 election of Turkey’s Justice and Development Party, which has Islamist roots.

Ottoman-Persian Relation

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Ottoman conflicts with European powers overshadowed relations with the Safavids.


At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Ottoman conflicts with European powers overshadowed relations with the Safavids. Following the 1718 Passarowitz Treaty between Austria and the Ottoman empire, Sultan Aḥmad III dispatched a mission to Isfahan to conclude an agreement with Shah Solṭān Ḥosayn making Persian goods destined for Austria duty-free. This Ottoman delegation arrived in Persia in early 1720 just at the beginning of the Afghan invasion that would end two centuries of Safavid rule by Moḥarram 1135/ October 1722.

Ottoman–Persian Wars

Below is the list of wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand and Qajar dynasties of Persia through the 16th–19th centuries. The Ottomans consolidated their control of what is today Turkey in the 15th century, and gradually came into conflict with the emerging neighboring Persian state, led by Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty. The two states were arch rivals, and were also divided by religious grounds, the Ottomans being staunchly Sunni and the Safavids being Shia. A series of military conflicts ensued for centuries during which the two empires competed militarily for control over eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia (Iraq).

Name of the war Ottoman sultan Persian shah Treaty at the end of the war Victor
Battle of Chaldiran(1514)[1]
Selim I
Ismail I
None The Ottoman Empire
War of 1532–1555[2]
Suleiman I
Tahmasp I
Treaty of Amasya (1555)
The Ottoman Empire[3]

War of 1578–1590[4]
Murad III
Mohammad Khodabanda, Abbas I

Ottoman–Safavid relations

The history of Ottoman-Safavid Empire relations started with the establishment of Safavid dynasty in Persia (Iran) in the early 16th century. The initial Ottoman-Safavid conflict culminated in the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and was followed by a century of border confrontation. In 1639, Safavid Persia and Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Zuhab which recognized Iraq in Ottoman control, and decisively parted the Caucasus in two between the two empires. For most of it, the Zuhab treaty was a consolidation of the Peace of Amasya of about a century earlier.[1]

French Alliance in the Sixteenth Century

Christine Isom-Verhaaren’s book is not a history of the Franco-Ottoman alliance in the 16th century; rather its aim is to show how the Ottomans and French of the time saw this alliance, which has so often been presented by later historians as exceptional and shameful, and why its real meaning and historical context were misunderstood. Chapters one to five describe what she calls the “traditional historiography”. In consequence what she says is not always new for Ottomanists and the book is clearly meant for a broad Anglophone readership.

Ottoman Empire: France And Austria-Hungary

The Ottoman Empire was the preeminent Muslim state of the early-modern and modern periods. Arising in Anatolia in the thirteenth century, the Ottomans came to dominate the Middle East, North Africa, and Southeastern Europe. Although often perceived as a Middle Eastern power only, the Ottomans were an integral part of Europe.

Relations between Turkey and France

France is an important trade and economic partner as well as one of the leading allies of Turkey, based on our long-standing relationship and hosting a Turkish community of more than 650 thousand.

Diplomatic relations between Turkey and France date back to 1483, when Sultan Bayezid II. sent an envoy of Greek origin from Limni island to Louis the XIth in order to get information about his brother Cem Sultan in France. Jean de la Forest, the first French ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, took office in 1535. With the capitulations in 1535, France became the most privileged state at the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire appointed its first ambassador Yirmisekiz Mehmet Çelebi to France in 1721.

The Treaty of Ankara, signed on 20 October 1921, during the Turkish War of Independence, is the basis for Turkey-France bilateral relations.

France–Turkey relations

French–Turkish relations cover a long period from the 16th century to the present, starting with the alliance established between Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent. Relations remained essentially friendly during a period of nearly three centuries, with the resumption of intense contacts from the reign of Louis XIV. Relations became more complex with the invasion of the Ottoman territory of Egypt by Napoleon I in 1798, and the dawn of the modern era.

Franco-Ottoman alliance
Letter of Suleiman the Magnificent to Francis I of France regarding the protection of Christians in his states. September 1528. Archives Nationales, Paris, France.


The Franco-Ottoman alliance, also Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France Francis I and the Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent. The alliance has been called "the first non-ideological diplomatic alliance of its kind between a Christian and non-Christian empire".[1] It caused a scandal in the Christian world,[2] and was designated as "the impious alliance", or "the sacrilegious union of the Lily and the Crescent"; nevertheless, it endured since it served the interests of both parties.[3] The strategic and sometimes tactical alliance was one of the most important foreign alliances of France and lasted for more than two and a half centuries,[4] until the Napoleonic Campaign in Egypt, an Ottoman territory, in 1798–1801. The Franco-Ottoman alliance was also an important chapter of Franco-Asian relations.



In this article relationships of Turkey and Germany will be researched from historical, cultural and social aspects. We will also analyze the communication and interaction aspects of these two cultures having different cultures.

When the we examine the relations between Germany and Turkey, we ca observe that the fundaments of the relations between two countries in fact have been laid centuries before and keeps continuing until today. It is observed that the relations between Germany and Turkey have started in political means back during the years when Ottomans have reached out to Europe. In 16th and 17th centuries when the Ottoman have been most powerful and most wide spread over Europe, in addition to the fact that there has not been a border neighborhood between two countries, it is known that in the unification of Europe against Ottoman, Political Societies of Germany have taken their place among such European Countries with caution and presented an amicable approach.

The German-Ottoman Alliance

In 1913, the Ottomans asked the Germans to assist in the development of a new military force, the Germans sent officer Liman von Sanders in reply. Sanders established the Ottoman I Corps in the city of Constantinople. Initially, the Germans viewed a relationship with the Ottomans as purely a means to secure the trade of military arms.[1] The Ottoman Empire was also not initially interested in establishing an alliance with Germany, the empire originally attempted to form an alliance with Britain. Britain however ignored three Ottoman proposals for alliance in 1908, 1911, and 1913.[2]

The German Connection

Before becoming part of the triumvirate that seized power in Turkey at the beginning of 1913, Enver, the Ottoman minister of war, served as a military attaché to Berlin. During his four-year commission Enver developed a close relationship with German Kaiser Wilhelm II.1 After the coup of 1913 that brought Enver to power, German-Ottoman military cooperation became national policy.
In December 1913, a German mission arrived in Turkey with the task of reorganizing the Ottoman army. Officers of the German military mission assumed responsibility for the command of the Turkish army under the leadership of Enver. The German-Turkish relationship was strengthened after the agreement of a military alliance between Germany and the Ottoman Empire in August 1914.

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