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Ottoman History
Ottoman History

Ottoman–Persian Wars

Below is the list of wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand and Qajar dynasties of Persia through the 16th–19th centuries. The Ottomans consolidated their control of what is today Turkey in the 15th century, and gradually came into conflict with the emerging neighboring Persian state, led by Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty. The two states were arch rivals, and were also divided by religious grounds, the Ottomans being staunchly Sunni and the Safavids being Shia. A series of military conflicts ensued for centuries during which the two empires competed militarily for control over eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia (Iraq).

Name of the war Ottoman sultan Persian shah Treaty at the end of the war Victor
Battle of Chaldiran(1514)[1]
Selim I
Ismail I
None The Ottoman Empire
War of 1532–1555[2]
Suleiman I
Tahmasp I
Treaty of Amasya (1555)
The Ottoman Empire[3]

War of 1578–1590[4]
Murad III
Mohammad Khodabanda, Abbas I
Treaty of Constantinople(1590)
The Ottoman Empire
War of 1603–1618, first stage

Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns
Ahmed I
Abbas I
Treaty of Nasuh Pasha (1612)
The Persian Empire
War of 1603–1618, second stage[5]
Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Osman II
Abbas I
Treaty of Serav(1618)
The Persian Empire
War of 1623–1639[6]
Murad IV
Abbas I, Safi
Treaty of Zuhab(1639)
The Ottoman Empire
War of 1730–1735, first stage

Tahmasp's campaign of 1731
Ahmed III, Mahmud I
Tahmasp II
Treaty of Ahmet Pasha (1732)
The Ottoman Empire.[7][8][9]

War of 1730–1736, second stage[10]
Mahmud I
Abbas III, Nader Shah
Treaty of Constantinople(1736)
The Persian Empire
War of 1743–1746[11]
Mahmud I
Nader Shah
Treaty of Kerden(1746)

War of 1775–1776[13]
Abdulhamid I
Karim Khan Zand
None Basra captured by Persia,[14] retaken by Ottomans three years later.[14]

War of 1821–1823[15]
Mahmud II
Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar
Treaty of Erzurum (1823)
Among the numerous treaties, the Treaty of Zuhab of 1639 is usually considered as the most important one, as it fixed present Turkey–Iran and Iraq–Iran borders. In later treaties, there were frequent references to Treaty of Zuhab.


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