Abdülhamid I, Abdul Hamid I or Abd Al-Hamid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد اول, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i evvel; Turkish: Birinci Abdülhamit; 20 March 1725 – 7 April 1789) was the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1774 to 1789.
Birth and early life
He was born in Constantinople, a younger son of Sultan Ahmed III(reigned 1703–1730) by his consort Rabia Şermi Sultan. Ahmed III abdicated in favor of his nephew Mahmud I, who was succeeded by his brother Osman III, and Osman by Ahmed's elder son Mustafa III.
As a potential heir to the throne, Abdül Hamid was imprisoned in comfort by his cousins and older brother, as was customary. This lasted until 1767. During this period, he received his early education from his mother Rabia Şermi, who taught him history and calligraphy.
When his brother Mustafa III died, Abdül Hamid succeeded him on 21 January 1774.
Abdül Hamid's long imprisonment had left him indifferent to state affairs and malleable to the designs of his advisors. Yet he was also very religious and a pacifist by nature. At his accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that the usual donative could not be given to theJanissary Corps. The new Sultan told the Janissaries "There are no longer gratuities in our treasury, as all of our soldier sons should learn."
Despite his pacific inclinations, the Ottoman Empire was forced to renewthe ongoing war with Russia almost immediately. This led to complete Turkish defeat at Kozludzha and the humiliating Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed on 21 July 1774. The Ottomans ceded territory to Russia, and also the right to intervene on behalf of the Orthodox Christians in the Empire..
Abdülhamid now sought to reform the Empire's armed forces. He enumerated the Janissary corps and tried to renovate it, and also the navy. He established a new artillery corps. He was also credited with the creation of the Imperial Naval Engineering School.
Abdülhamid tried to strengthen Ottoman rule over Syria, Egypt, and Iraq.However, slight successes against rebellions in Syria and the Morea could not compensate for the loss of the Crimean Peninsula, which had become nominally independent in 1774, but was in practice now controlled by Russia.
Russia repeatedly exploited its position as protector of Eastern Christians to interfere in the Ottoman Empire, and explicitly. Finally the Ottomans declaredwar against Russia in 1787. Austria soon joined Russia. Turkey held its own in the conflict, at first, but on 6 December 1788, Ochakov fell to Russia (all of its inhabitants being massacred). It is said that this sad defeat broke Abdül Hamid's spirit, as he died four months later.
In spite of his failures, Abdülhamid was regarded as the most gracious Ottoman Sultan. He personally directed the fire brigade during the Constantinople fire of 1782. He was admired by the people for his religious devotion, and was even called a Veli ("saint"). He also outlined a reform policy, supervised the government closely, and worked with statesmen.
In 1789, Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore sent an embassy to Abdülhamid, urgently requesting assistance against the British East India Company, and proposed an offensive and defensive alliance. Abdul Hamid informed the Mysori ambassadors that the Ottomans were still entangled and exhausted from the ongoing war with Russia and Austria.
Abdülhamid died on 7 April 1789, at the age of sixty-four, in Constantinople. He was buried in Bahcekapi, a tomb he had built for himself.
He bred Arabian horses with great passion. One breed of Küheylan Arabians was named "Küheylan Abdülhamid" after him.
His wives were:
• Valide Sultan Sineperver Sultan
• Valide Sultan Nakşidil Sultan (there have been speculations that she was a cousin of Napoleon's wife Josephine;see Aimée du Buc de Rivéry)
• Ayşe Kadın
• Ruhşah Kadın
• Nevres Kadın
• Hümaşah Kadın
• Binnaz Kadın
• Mehtabe Kadın (m. 14 August 1774)
• Mutebere Kadın (m. 20 October 1774)
• Şebsafa Kadın
His sons were:
• Mustafa IV (reigned 1807–08) (by Ayşe Seniyeperver)
• Mahmud II (reigned 1808–39) (by Naksh-i-Dil)
• Şehzade Sultan Abdullah (1 January 1776 - 1 January 1776)
• Şehzade Sultan Mehmed (22 August 1776 - 20 February 1781)
• Şehzade Sultan Ahmed (8 December 1776 - 18 December 1778)
• Şehzade Sultan Abdurrahman (8 September 1777 - 8 September 1777)
• Şehzade Sultan Süleyman (13 March 1779 - 19 January 1786)
• Şehzade Sultan Abdülaziz (19 August 1779 - 19 August 1779)
• Şehzade Sultan Mehmed Nusret (20 September 1782 - 23 October 1785)
• Şehzade Sultan Seyfullah Murad (22 October 1783 - 21 January 1786)
His daughters were:
• Dürrüşehvar Sultan (died 11 May 1831), married Damat Ahmed Nazif Bey (killed 21 May 1789), son of Hacı Selim Agha
• Hatice Sultan (12 January 1776 - 8 November 1776)
• Ayşe Sultan (30 July 1777 - 9 September 1777)
• Esma Sultan (17 July 1778 - 4 June 1848), married 29 May 1792, Damat Küçük Hüseyin Pasha (died 8 January 1803), foster-brother of Sultan Selim III
• Rabia Sultan (20 March 1780 - 28 June 1780)
• Aynişah Sultan (9 July 1780 - 28 July 1780)
• Melikşah Sultan (28 January 1781 - 24 December 1781)
• Rabia Sultan (10 August 1781 - 3 October 1782)
• Fatma Sultan (12 December 1782 - 11 January 1786)
• Alemşah Sultan (11 October 1784 - 10 March 1786)
• Saliha Sultan (27 November 1786 - 10 April 1788)
• Emine Sultan (4 February 1788 - 9 March 1791
• Hibetullah Sultan (16 March 1789 - 1 8 September 1841), married 3 February 1804, Damat Alaeddin Pasha (died at Scutari, January 1813), son of Damat Seyid Ahmed Pasha