He was born at Edirne Palace a son of sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87) and Mah-Para Ummatullah Rabia Gül-Nush Valide Sultan, originally named Evemia, who was of Greek Cretandescent. Mustafa II abdicated in favor of his brotherAhmed III (1703–30) in 1703.
During his reign the Great Turkish War, which had started in 1683, was still going on. After the failure of the second Siege of Vienna (1683) the Holy League had captured large parts of the Empire's territory in Europe. The Habsburg armies came as far asNis, modern-day Serbia, before being pushed back across the Danube by 1690. Sultan Mustafa II was determined to recapture the lost territories in Hungary and therefore he personally commanded his armies.
First, the Ottoman navy recaptured the island of Chios after defeating the Venetian Fleet twice, in the Battle of the Oinousses Islands (1695) and in the Battle of Chios (1695), in February 1695. In June 1695, Mustafa II left Edirnefor his first military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. By September 1695 the town of Lipova was captured. On 18 September 1695 the Venetian Navy was again defeated in the naval victory of Zeytinburnu. A few days later the Habsburg army was defeated in the Battle of Lugos. Afterwards the Ottoman Army returned to the capital. Meanwhile, the Ottoman fortress in Azov was successfully defended against the besieging Russian forces.
On April 1696 Mustafa II left Edirne for his second military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. In August 1696 the Russians besieged Azov for the second time and captured the fortress. In August 1696 the Ottoman troops defeated the Habsburg army in the Battle of Ulaş and in the Battle of Cenei. After these victories the Ottoman troops capturedTimişoara and Koca Cafer Pasha was appointed as the protector of Belgrade. Afterwards the army returned to the Ottoman capital.
In June 1697 Mustafa II left the capital on his third military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. However, the Ottoman Army suffered a defeat in the Battle of Zenta and Grand Vizier Elmas Mehmed Pasha died in the battle. Afterwards the Ottomans signed a treaty with the Holy League.
The most traumatic event of his reign was the loss of Hungary by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699.
Yet even if Ottoman power seemed to wane on one side of the empire, this did not mean that Ottoman efforts at expansion ceased. In 1700, for example, the Grand Vizier Amcazade Hüseyin boasted to a recalcitrant tribe residing in swamps near Baghdad that they ought to abide by the sultan's rule, since his grasp extended even to their marshy redoubts. The Grand Vizier added that, after all, Mustafa was "the Lord of Water and Mud."
At the end of his reign, Mustafa II sought to restore power to the Sultanate, which had been an increasingly symbolic position since the middle of the 17th century, when Mehmed IV had signed over his executive powers to the Grand Vizier. Mustafa II's strategy was to create an alternative base of power for himself by making the position of timars, the Ottoman cavalrymen, hereditary and thus loyal to him. The timars, however, were at this point increasingly an obsolete part of the Ottoman military machine.
The strategem (called the "Edirne event" by historians) failed, and Mustafa II was deposed in the same year, 1703. He died at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople.
• Alicenab Kadın;
• Saliha Sultan;
• Şehsuvar Sultan;
• Afife Kadın;
• Bahtiyar Kadın;
• Ivaz Kadın;
• Mahmud I (2 August 1696 – 13 December 1754), son with Saliha Sultan;
• Şehzade Suleiman (25 December 1697 – 25 December 1697), son with Afife Kadın;
• Şehzade Mehmed (22 November 1698 – 5 June 1703), son with Afife Kadın;
• Osman III (2/3 January 1699 – 30 October 1757), son with Şehsuvar Sultan;
• Şehzade Hasan (27 March 1699 – May 1733), became heir apparent from 1730.
• Şehzade Hüseyn (7 May 1699 – 24 August 1700), son with Afife Kadın;
• Şehzade Selim (16 May 1700 – 8 June 1701), son with Afife Kadın;
• Şehzade Ahmed (3 March 1703 – 7 September 1703), son with Afife Kadın;
• Ayşe Sultan (30 March 1696 – 26 September 1752), married firstly 14 March 1710 Damad Haji Fazil Numan Pasha Koprulu, Grand Vizier, married secondly 15 September 1720, Damad Ibrahim Pasha Tazkarachi.
• Emine Sultan (1 September 1696 – 1739), married firstly 9 April 1708 Damad Ali Pasha, Grand Vizier, married secondly July 1728, Damad Muhassil Abdullah Pasha, Governor-General of Aydin.
• Safiye Sultan (13 December 1696 – 15 May 1778), married firstly 8 May 1710, Damad Genc Ali Pasha, 3rd Vizier in 1701, married 30 April 1740, Damad Alaiyali Haji Abu Bakar Pasha, Vizier in 1724.
• Rukiye Sultan (13 November 1697 –28 March 1698).
• Hatice Sultan (14 February 1698 – died young).
• Fatma Sultan (8 October 1699 – 20 May 1700).
• Ismihan Sultan (23 April 1700 – 1 June 1700).
• Ümmügülsüm Sultan (10 June 1700 – 1 May 1701).
• Zeyneb Sultan (10 June 1700 – 18 December 1705).
• Emmetullah Sultan (22 June 1701 – 12 April 1727), married 13 September 1720 Damad Kanijali Sirki Osman Pasha.