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Ottoman History
Ottoman History

Murad I

Murad I, (born 1326?—died June 20/28 or Aug. 28, 1389, Kosovo) Ottoman sultan who ruled from 1360 to 1389. Murad’s reign witnessed rapid Ottoman expansion in Anatolia and the Balkans and the emergence of new forms of government and administration to consolidate Ottoman rule in these areas.
Murad ascended the throne in succession to his father, Orhan. Shortly after Murad’s accession, his forces penetrated western Thrace and took Adrianopleand Philippopolis and forced the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus to become a vassal. Adrianople was renamed Edirne, and it became Murad’s capital. In 1366 a crusade commanded by Amadeus VI of Savoy ... (100 of 413 words)

About Murad I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr - from Persian: خداوندگار Khodāvandgār - "the God-like One") (Serbian: Мурат 1. / Murat I) (Turkish: I. Murat Hüdavendigâr) (March or June 29, 1326, Sogut or Bursa – June 15, 1389, Battle of Kosovo) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد اول) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan of Rûm, from 1362 to 1389. He was the son of Orhan I and the Valide Sultan Nilüfer Hatun (whose name means Water lily in Turkish), daughter of the Prince of Yarhisar or Byzantine princess Theodora Kantakouzene (also named Nilüfer), who was of ethnic Greek descent and became the ruler following his father's death in 1362.
He established the Empire by building up a society and government in the newly conquered city of Adrianople (Edirne in Turkish) and by expanding the realm in Europe, bringing most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and forcing the Byzantine emperor to pay him tribute. It was Murad who established the former Osmanli tribe into an empire. He established the title of sultan in 1383 and the corps of the janissaries and the devşirme recruiting system. He also organised the government of the Divan, the system of timars and timar-holders (timariots) and the military judge, the kazasker. He also established the two provinces of Anadolu (Anatolia) and Rumeli (Europe).
Murad fought against the powerful emirate of Karaman in Anatolia and against the Serbs, Bulgarians and Hungarians in Europe. In particular, a Serb expedition to expel the Turks from Adrianople led by King Vukasin and Despot Ugljesa, both being Serbian magnates, was defeated on September 26, 1371, by Murad's capable second lieutenant Lala Şâhin Paşa, the first governor (beylerbey) of Rumeli. In 1385 Sofia fell to the Ottomans. In 1386 Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović defeated a small Ottoman force at the Battle of Pločnik. The Ottoman army did not suffer heavy casualties, and was unable to capture Niš on the way back. In 1389 Murad's army defeated the Serbian Army and its allies under the leadership of Lazar at the Battle of Kosovo.

There are different accounts from different sources about when and how Murad I was assassinated. The contemporary sources mainly noted that the battle took place and that both Prince Lazar and the Sultan lost their lives in the battle. The existing evidence of the additional stories and speculations as to how Murad I died were disseminated and recorded in the 15th century and later, decades after the actual event. One Western source states that during first hours of the battle, Murad I was assassinated by Serbian nobleman and knight Miloš Obilić by knife. Most Ottoman chroniclers (including Dimitrie Cantemir) state that he was assassinated after the finish of the battle while going around the battlefield. Others state that he was assassinated in the evening after the battle at his tent by the assassin who was admitted to ask a special favour. His older son Bayezid, who was in charge of the left wing of the Ottoman forces, took charge after that. His other son, Yakub Bey, who was in charge of the other wing, was called to the Sultan's command center tent by Bayezid, but when Yakub Bey arrived he was strangled, leaving Bayezid as the sole claimant to the throne.
In the earliest preserved Christian record, a letter of Florentine senate to the King Tvrtko I of Bosnia, dated 20 October 1389, Murad I's killing was described. Milos Obilic, a Serbian warrior had managed to get through the Ottoman army and kill Murad I.
Fortunate, most fortunate are those hands of the twelve loyal lords who, having opened their way with the sword and having penetrated the enemy lines and the circle of chained camels, heroically reached the tent of Amurat himself. Fortunate above all is that one who so forcefully killed such a strong vojvoda by stabbing him with a sword in the throat and belly. And blessed are all those who gave their lives and blood through the glorious manner of martyrdom as victims of the dead leader over his ugly corpse.

Therefore, the earliest account suggests a coordinated attack of a group of noblemen who managed to break through and behind enemy lines, rather than a solitary act of deception by a single person.
Sultan Murad's internal organs were buried in Kosovo field and remains to this day on a corner of the battlefield in a location called Meshed-i Hudavendigar which has gained a religious significance by the Muslims (which had been renamed Obilić by the Serbs). It has recently been renovated. His other remains were carried to Bursa, his Anatolian capital city, and were buried in a tomb at the complex built in his name.
Marriages and progeny
Murad I, oil on canvas by Haydar Hatemi
Marriages of Murad I:
In 1359 Valide Sultan Gülçiçek Hatun- of Greek origin
In 1370 Maria Thamara Hatun - sister of Bulgarian Czar Ivan Shishman
Pasha Melek Hatun - daughter of Kizil Murad Bey
Fulane Hatun - daughter of Candaroglu
Progeny of Murad I:
Yakub Celebi (? - d. 1389) - son. In the first recorded fratricide in the history of the Ottoman dynasty, Bayezid I had Yakup killed during or following the Battle of Kosovo at which their father had been killed.
Sultan Bayezid I (1354-1402)- son of Gulcicek Hatun
Savci Bey - son. He and his lover, Byzantyne emperor John V Palaeologus' son Andronicus,[7] rebelled against their fathers. Murad had Savci killed. Andronicus, who had surrendered to his father, was imprisoned and blinded at Murad's insistence.[8]
Ibrahim Bey - son
Yahshi Bey - son of Gulcicek Hatun
Halil Bey - son
Nefise - daughter
Sultan - daughter
Sultan Murad in literature
In William Shakespeare's History play Henry V,
Prince Harry refers to Murad as "Amurath" in Act V Scene 2 when he succeeds his father, King Henry IV, in 1412:
Chief Justice. Good morrow, and God save your majesty!
King Henry V. This new and gorgeous garment, majesty,
Sits not so easy on me as you think.
Brothers, you mix your sadness with some fear:
This is the English, not the Turkish court;
Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds,
But Harry Harry!
Murad (as "Amurath the First") is the subject of Thomas Goffe's play The Courageous Turk, published in 1632.


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